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向紫气东来请教一下

已有 1381 次阅读2015-12-24 00:24 |系统分类:法律园地 | 宽屏 请点击显示宽屏,再点击恢复窄屏 | 动漫全图 如只见部分动漫,请点击显示全图,再点击恢复窄图

问题一:enter a default。对于这个问题,不太确定,下面已经是老农最好的理解了。请紫气东来帮助给出更好,更准确的翻译。


问题二,句子:“When a party against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought has failed to plead or otherwise defend” 的翻译。对于这个问题,我还是比较确定的,下面是我的看法:


对照下面:Requirements Before You Can Enter a Default:
(1)  Defendant must be served with Summons and Complaint.
(2)  The time for responding to the Summons and Complaint must have passed.
(3)  Defendant must have failed to file a responsive pleading to the Complaint.
(4) Defendant must be served with a Statement of Damages.

这句话:
:“When a party against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought has failed to plead or otherwise defend” 其实是省略了条件(1),(2),中间的从句“against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought”是条件(4)。如我上面所指出的,司法实践表明,那个不是必须的。所以,我的翻译;略去了那个从句。

如有不同意见,请指教。


维基:

Default judgment is a binding judgment in favor of either party based on some failure to take action by the other party. Most often, it is a judgment in favor of a plaintiff when the defendant has not responded to a summons or has failed to appear before a court of law. The failure to take action is the default. The default judgment is the relief requested in the party's original petition.[1]


缺席裁决是一个有约束力的裁决,可以有利于任一方,取决于另一方没有按时应诉。最经常的,这个判决有利于原告,当被告没有及时回应传票或者没有出庭。未采取行动就是default。缺席审判就是确定诉状中提出的补偿。


What is a Default Judgment?:

A defendant is “in default” as soon as the defendant fails to file a responsive pleading (e.g. an Answer or a Demurrer) within the statutory time limit.  This means little until the clerk “enters a default” against the defendant.  The plaintiff must make an application for the clerk to enter a default judgement.


Requirements Before You Can Enter a Default:

  • (1)  Defendant must be served with Summons and Complaint. Then Plaintiff must have a Proof of Service of Summons and Complaint and file it with the court.  Service may be accomplished by publication.  [CCP 585(c)].
  • (2)  The time for responding to the Summons and Complaint must have passed. Defendant has 30 days after service is complete (see below) to serve a response.  [CCP § 412.20(a)(3)].
  • (3)  Defendant must have failed to file a responsive pleading to the Complaint. E.g. an Answer or a Demurrer.  Note:  Even if a defendant serves a responsive pleading, if it is not filed, plaintiff may obtain a default.
  • (4) Defendant must be served with a Statement of Damages. A statement of damages (Judicial Council Form Civ-050) lists the amount of monetary damages that the plaintiff seeks.   Personal injury complaints are not allowed to state the amount of damages sought (to protect defendants from negative publicity) however the law requires that the plaintiff inform the defendant of the specific monetary damages sought before a default can be taken  (This serves as a final reminder that the defendant may be on the hook if they fail to answer, see Greenup v. Rodman (1986) 42 C3d 822, 829).  Service must be accomplished in the same manner governing service of the summons—i.e., pursuant to CCP § 413.10 et seq. [CCP  413.10, CCP 425.11].   Note:  There are some pre-1993 cases that say defendant can be served by mail alone – these are out of date and incorrect.

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