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『老农观棋』案例分析(五)如何进入缺席审判(default)(二) ...

已有 964 次阅读2015-12-24 00:23 |系统分类:法律园地 | 宽屏 请点击显示宽屏,再点击恢复窄屏 | 动漫全图 如只见部分动漫,请点击显示全图,再点击恢复窄图

    案例还是小月的实战。


如文《岳东晓的Motion to Entry of Default 被拒绝了(Yue VS Han 案)》,小月这次更惨,法官没有出面,要求进入缺席审判程序的动议直接被法院书记员(这个用法,和大陆相协调)扔到了纸篓里。何故?先看看法官的解释:


II. LEGAL STANDARD

Rule 4(e) sets standards for sufficient service of process on an individual within the United States. As is relevant here, the Rule allows for service in any manner authorized by “following state law for serving a summons in an action brought in courts of general jurisdiction in the state where the district court is located . . . .” Fed. R. Civ. P. 4(e)(1). 

California law provides that “summons may be served on a person outside this state . . . by sending a copy of the summons and of the complaint to the person to be served by first-class mail, postage prepaid, requiring a return receipt. Service of a summons by this form of mail is deemed complete on the 10th day after such mailing.” Cal. Civ. Proc. Code § 415.40.

The Code of Civil Procedure further requires that “if service is made by mail pursuant to Section 415.40, proof of service shall include evidence satisfactory to the court establishing actual delivery to the person to be served, by a signed return receipt or other evidence.” Cal. Civ. Proc. Code § 417.20(a).

 

IV. ANALYSIS

The Proofs of Service that Plaintiff filed indicate that a process server attempted to serve each defendant by mail pursuant to section 415.40 after unsuccessful efforts to personally. The Proofs of Service do not, however, make clear what address or addresses service by mail was directed to, nor do they include “evidence satisfactory to the court establishing actual delivery to the person to be served, by a signed return receipt or other evidence,” other than the process server’s conclusory statement that service was completed. See Cal. Civ. Proc. Code § 417.20. The Court therefore declines to enter default based on the Proofs of Service.

 

上面的英语不做翻译了,下面需要时直接引用。我们先来分析一下。一个法律问题,是一个逻辑题目,也可以比作几何题,中学生应该是驾轻就熟。


比如说,要证明两个三角形全等,可以用两角一夹边相等(角//角),两边一夹角(边//边),两角一对边(角//边)等,而如果用角//角方法,也许需要用平行线的内错角相等/同位角相等定理来证明角相等,。。。,总而言之,一步一步从未知推到已知。这种方法叫分析法;是破题时的常用法。而解题的时候,通常是从已知出发,一步一步推到未知。这种方法叫做综合法,是解题论证时常用的方法。


好,我们用分析法,来看如果动议缺席审判(default),需要哪些条件?

1.       要申请缺席裁决(default judgement),就要先申请进入缺席审判程序(enter a default),这是上文讨论的(《『法律学习』 案例分析(四)如何进入缺席审判(default》);

2.       要动议进入default,就需要完成对被告送达船票;

3.       要证明送达船票就要给法院送递者的宣誓和提交证明;

4.       要提交证明,当然要先送达,取得证明;

5.       要合法送到船票,当然要用法律/法院认可的方法。


法官事实上是用分析法来解题的(见IV. ANALYSIS),从3. 检查船票开始:“原告的船票送达证明表示,他的送达官在无法个人送达船票之后,试图用邮寄的方式来完成”(The Proofs of Service that Plaintiff filed indicate that a process server attempted to serve each defendant by mail pursuant to section 415.40 after unsuccessful efforts to personally.)。


而这种送达方法的合法性,法官在LEGAL STANDARD(法律依据)中给出了答案(用综合法):

第一段说的是:送达船票的方式,有一项是可以遵从state law(所在地州法)Fed. R. Civ. P. 4(e)(1). 

第二段说的是:加州州法允许用电邮送船票。Cal. Civ. Proc. Code § 415.40.

第三段说的是:加州法要求用邮件送船票需要提供的证据:Cal. Civ. Proc. Code § 417.20(a).


法官接着分析道,然而(however),船票送达证明,既没有注明邮件送到哪个地址,也没有给出任何所需的证据(如签名回执),而仅仅是传递者给出结论式的陈述:“船票送到了”。如是,根据这个传递证明,缺席审判被否决。


结论,小月不是缺乏最基本的逻辑能力,就是糊弄法官。不过,法官不好糊弄,最后是糊弄自己。


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