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『法律学习』 案例分析(四)如何进入缺席审判(default)

已有 2857 次阅读2015-12-22 23:29 |系统分类:法律园地 | 宽屏 请点击显示宽屏,再点击恢复窄屏 | 动漫全图 如只见部分动漫,请点击显示全图,再点击恢复窄图

     今天学法题目是default(缺席审判)。案例是根据小月的实战。


小月在20062012年之间,在联邦法院,至少打了五个24年的官司,均为原告。其中有两案提出default,一个当天自己撤销,另一个被法官驳回,理由如下(细节请见下面附录,法院命令):

第一,程序错误,原告在寻求缺席判决(default judgement)之前,没有要求进入缺席审判程序(entry of default)

第二,案情错误,没有缺席审判的事实,因为被告没有缺席。

 

程序错误,是小月不懂,还是钻空子?很难判断。案情(事实)错误从何而来?细查,小月12/10/07提出修订诉状之后两天,有一个听证会,讨论这个案子和以前一个案子的关系,由此原因,法官说在确定之前不必开始法庭辩论。小月不同意,法官就下了命令。仅仅因这个命令没有写到当天的听证命令之中(对话也有记录),小月钻这个空子,到了修订诉状21天后,因为被告没有回复而提出缺席审判。被告当然怒不可遏,对小月无视法官命令而提出制裁动议。小月明明白白是在钻空子耍赖。法官鉴于当时没有把命令写成文字,仅仅否决了小月的缺席审判动议,但是没有惩罚。



附录一:何为缺席审判

Rule 55. Default; Default Judgment

(a) Entering a Default. When a party against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought has failed to plead or otherwise defend, and that failure is shown by affidavit or otherwise, the clerk must enter the party's default.

(b) Entering a Default Judgment.

翻译:

      联邦程序法55,缺席审判;缺席判决

(a)   进入缺席审判程序。当某当事人没有到庭为自己辩护和防卫,这个缺席如果确定,则法院书记员必须设置此当事人进入缺席审判程序

(b)   进入缺席判决


注意差别:

   Default --- 缺席审判,是个过程

   Enter a default --- 进入缺席审判程序

   Default judgement --- 缺席裁决,是审判的结果(见维基的解释



附录二:
小月缺席审判案例的法官判决


       507-cv-05850-JW Yue v. Storage Technology Corporation et al

filed 11192007 terminated 03042008 last filing 12152009Doc 41


法官命令原文:

                On July 2, 2008, Yue filed a Motion for Default against Defendants StorageTek and Sun.

LEGAL STANDARD

A. Motion for Default Judgment

There is a two-step process to secure a default judgment pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 55. Plaintiff must first seek an entry of default under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 55(a). Under Rule 55(a), the Clerk may enter default “[w]hen a party against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought has failed to plead or otherwise defend” the action. Once the default is entered, plaintiff may then seek a default judgment. See Fed. R. Civ. Proc. 55(b)(1) and (2). The decision of whether to grant or deny a request for default judgment lies within the sound discretion of the district court. See Aldabe v. Aldabe, 616 F.2d 1089, 1092 (9th Cir.1980).

 

ANALYSIS

A. Plaintiff is Not Entitled to Default Judgment

Plaintiff requests that the Court enter a judgment of default against Defendants because they failed to plead or otherwise defend within the prescribed time required by the rules or a valid court order. (See Plf.’s Motion at 1-2.) Plaintiff’s request for default judgment is flawed for two reasons. First, procedurally, Plaintiff failed to seek entry of default from the Clerk before making a motion for default judgment. See Fed. R. Civ. Proc. 55(a). Second, on the merits, Plaintiff is not entitled to entry of default or default judgment because Defendants did not default. Plaintiff filed the Amended Complaint on December 10, 2007. At the December 14, 2007 hearing, the Court ordered that no responsive pleading would be due until such time as the Court set a date at the upcoming status conference. On January 2, 2008, when Plaintiff filed this Motion for Default, the Court had not yet held the aforementioned status conference or set a deadline for Defendants’ responsive pleading. Thus, Defendants did not fail to plead or otherwise defend this action and did not default. The Court therefore DENIES Plaintiff’s Motion for Default.

 

CONCLUSION

For the foregoing reasons, the Court DENIES Plaintiff’s Motion for Default

 

IT IS SO ORDERED.

 

Dated: February 8, 2008

MARTIN J. JENKINS

UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE

 

翻译:

 

200872日,小月提出动议,对被告StorageTek and Sun进行缺席审判。

 

法律依据

A。缺席判决动议

根据联邦程序法第55,缺席判决需份两步走。根据规则55(a),原告必须先申请进入缺席审判程序。法院书记员可以允许进入此程序,如果符合规则55(a),”当某当事人没有到庭为自己辩护和防卫。进入缺席审判程序之后,根据规则55(b)(1)&(2),原告可以再申请缺席判决。判决将根据案情,由法官决定。

 

分析

A.原告不具有申请缺席判决的资格

原告要求法院缺席判决被告,因为他们没有按时出席辩护。原告的要求有两个疵点:第一,程序上,原告在寻求缺席判决(default judgement)之前,没有要求进入缺席审判程序(entry of default)(见规则55(a))。第二,根据案情,原告不具有寻求缺席审判的资格,因为被告没有缺席。原告12/10/2007提出修订诉状,12/14/2007的听证,法院命令在法庭指定一个会商日子之前,不需要开始法庭辩论。1/2/2008,原告提出这个缺席审判动议时,法庭并没有设定前述的会商日期,也没有设定被告回应的截止日期。所以,被告没有错过为自己辩护和防卫日期,所以没有缺席。法院驳回小月的缺席审判动议。

 

结论

法院驳回小月的缺席审判动议。

此为法令。

2008.2.8

MARTIN J. JENKINS

                                                                                           美国法官

 


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回复 老农 2015-12-23 14:44
文章紫色部分为文字修改,使得理解和阅读更顺。

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